If you’ve recently joined the world of PC gaming and hardware, you’re likely already overwhelmed with loads of fresh facts and words like GPU, CPU, and so on.
To ease your transition into the PC community, we’re writing this guide to specifically explain what a CPU is, its main purpose, and the different types of CPUs available on the market.
Let’s get started!
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Central Processing Unit
So what does CPU stand for? Well, CPU is an abbreviation of “central processing unit”, which is sometimes referred to as just a processor.
The processor is what makes every computer whole. Without this crucial piece of hardware, computers wouldn’t be nearly as smart as they are today. It’s the brains of the whole operation.
But what exactly does the CPU do?
In short, the CPU executes instructions issued by a program. That program can be anything from Windows Explorer to Google Chrome, opening YouTube, or running a video game.
How Does It Work?
Above we shared a basic explanation, but the whole process of executing just one instruction is incredibly complicated. Of course, we won’t have to get into the scientific part of how CPUs work, but we can go into a bit of detail.
When you give a command with your mouse to a certain program, the processor grabs the instruction from the system RAM, deciphers the instruction, and then executes it. The result of the execution can be a variety of things. It could activate the GPU, the storage drives, or even your Wi-Fi stick. This whole process takes only a fragment of a second.
In that fragment, the CPU solves basic logic or arithmetic operations and does many other tasks, such as moving around the 1s and 0s. It’s basically a glorified number cruncher—a very complicated calculator.
Types Of Processors
Opening up the CPU category in any PC shop, you’ll be met with several dozen different models. These models can be different in many ways, but the way they work and their purpose is the same.
The difference is in their architecture and their performance.
Currently, a customer only has two options when it comes to a computer’s CPU: AMD or Intel.
Here are some of AMD’s processors:
|Ryzen 3 3300X||Ryzen 5 3600X||Ryzen 7 3900X||EPYC 7702P|
|Ryzen 3 2200G||Ryzen 5 5600X||Ryzen 7 5800X||EPYC 7742|
|Ryzen 3 2400G||Ryzen 5 3600||Ryzen 7 5900X||Threadripper 3995WX|
|Ryzen 3 3200G||Ryzen 5 2600X||Ryzen 7 5950X||Threadripper 5990X|
People in the lower-tier group are generally recorded with significantly lower numbers, and a few are restricted to only four cores without multithreading, whereas some possess it.
A few of them have a built-in graphics card, unlike the ones in the middle and top tiers.
The mid-end category is filled with 6-core/12-thread CPUs with a budget-friendly price tag. The 3600X was a favorite for a long-time for many enthusiasts.
The high-end category is usually with SKUs with 8-core/16-thread. Some of them with up to 16 cores and 32 threads even.
The workstation/server category is a whole different level. These processors are not meant for the typical consumer of gaming or basic rendering. Instead, these are recommended for rendering professionals, businesses, workstations, servers, etc.
For example, the Threadripper Pro 3995WX is a 64-core/128-thread processor. But, it also costs well over $5,000.
EPYC processors are even more expensive than that.
This is how Intel’s roster appears:
|i3-10100||i5-11400||i7-11700||Xeon Gold 5315Y|
|i3-10300||i5-11500||i7-11700K||Xeon Gold 6338|
|i3-10305||i5-11600||i7-11900||Xeon Platinum 8362|
|i3-10325||i5-11600K||i7-11900K||Xeon Platinum 8380|
Intel follows the same trend as AMD. The low-end category SKUs usually have 4-cores and 8 threads.
Mid-range processors come with 6-cores and 12 threads. Note: Processors with the letters K and KF are overclockable, while the rest are not.
In the high-end category are Intel’s fastest processors that provide some of the best gaming performance. These usually come with an 8-core/16-thread setup. Although, that might change with Intel’s 12th generation of CPUs, Alder Lake, since this will be the first time the company will be implementing a hybrid big.LITTLE architecture.
We’ve been throwing around the word cores and threads throughout this article, but we never explained what they really mean.
If we go back to the 2000s, we will be able to find a bunch of processors that had no more than one core. Inside of this core is where all of the computational tasks are executed. So, processors from that age could go through instructions one by one.
As CPU architecture got smaller and more advanced, dual-core processors started showing up on the market. Dual cores meant that one CPU could execute two completely different instructions simultaneously, effectively making a computer faster.
Opening Google Chrome and a video game at the same time became much smoother.
In 2023, processors are notably enhanced compared to the previous dual-core models. Currently, customer CPUs have a maximum of 16 cores accessible at a reasonable cost. Consequently, a modern CPU is capable of carrying out multiple instructions simultaneously.
And, taking into consideration that every core is split into two virtual cores, which are called threads, means that a 16-core CPU can execute 32 instructions simultaneously.
Please bear in mind that not every CPU has simultaneous multithreading. For instance, Intel’s i7-9700K (from 2018) lacks Hyper-threading (Intel’s own term for multithreading). Yet, it still performs equally well to other top-tier CPUs.
How fast a CPU can take, process, and send data is determined by its clock speed.
More precisely, the velocity is calculated in clock cycles per second. The purpose of these cycles is to coordinate each operation in the processor. Additional cycles per second result in a more effective execution of instructions.
Nowadays, clock speeds are measured in frequencies, so you’ll often see CPUs that have a clock speed of multiple gigahertz. Some of Intel’s CPUs exceed 5.0 GHz.
However, because of the difference in architecture, clock speeds can only be compared in the same family of processors. To put it simply, Intel’s 5.0 GHz is not the same as AMD’s 5.0 GHz. We can get a good example by comparing AMD’s Ryzen 5900X (max boost clock 4.8 GHz) and Intel’s i5-11600K (max boost clock of 4.9 GHz).
Even though the i5 has a higher clock speed, the Ryzen processor is still considerably faster in every aspect because of their difference in architecture.
So, what does it take to get your hands on a modern CPU? Thanks to the fierce competition between Intel and AMD, today’s processors are quite affordable.
Those looking for a low-powered CPU to run the most basic tasks such as watching videos, word processing, surfing, etc., consider some of these:
- AMD Ryzen 3 3300X – one of the most powerful 4-core, 8-thread CPUs on the market with an MSRP of just $120. Remarkably good for gaming too.
- AMD Ryzen 3 3200G – Considerably slower in single-core performance than the 3300X, but it is cheaper at $100. Additionally, it has an integrated GPU, making it a great choice for office computers.
- Intel i3-10100 – Near 3300X performance and at the same $120 price point. A solid low-end choice.
For more power, improved productivity, and FPS in-game, medium-tier CPUs provide the perfect balance between performance and price. Here are some popular options:
- Intel i5-10600K – One of the best price-per-performance CPUs coming from Intel. With a price of around $250 and a performance almost as good as some of the most expensive CPUs on the market, it’s a bargain.
- Ryzen 3 3600 – It may be from an older generation, but considering that you can get incredibly fast 6-cores and 12 threads for less than $180, it’s a no-brainer.
- Ryzen 5 5600X – A surprisingly pricier Ryzen ($300) with a similar performance to the i5 mentioned above. Not the most budget-friendly choice, but a great pick for those that need some extra multi-core performance (productivity workloads).
The modern high-quality CPUs are truly impressive. Their individual and multiple functions are similar to professional models. Nowadays, you could even utilize an i7 as a server.
Here are some of the best high-end CPUs on the market:
- Ryzen 7 5900X – This is one of the fastest processors at the time of writing. It comes with a price tag of $550, but you’ll also get 12-cores and 24 threads. Even with such a high-core count, it still delivers some of the best single-core performance.
- Ryzen 7 5950X – The 5950X is a direct upgrade to the 5900X. Nearly identical single-core performance, but with four more cores. That makes it a 16-core, 32-thread, but at $850.
- Intel i7-11700K – The 11700k is Intel’s high-end offer that’s as good as the above-mentioned Ryzen processors or maybe even better when it comes to gaming, even though it only has 8-cores and 16 threads. Combining that kind of performance with just a $400 MSRP, it might be the best value offer in this category.
There is a lot more to what a CPU is, how it works and how it will develop in the future. But, for entry-level tech enthusiasts, understanding some of these basics is more than enough to get you into the PC community.